🐳 Production Grade, Rootless, and Optimized PHP Container Image Template for Cloud-Native Deployments and Kubernetes.
MIT License

KubePHP - Production Grade, Rootless, Optimized, PHP Container Image for Cloud Native PHP Apps 🐳

Compatible with popular PHP Frameworks such as Laravel 5+ & Symfony 4+ and their variants.
Typically deployed on Kubernetes.

Build PHP >=7^ | >=8^ GitHub forks GitHub issues GitHub license contributions welcome


Production Grade Image for PHP 7+ Applications running Nginx + PHP FPM based on PHP & Nginx Official Images, compatible with popular PHP Frameworks such as Laravel 5+ & Symfony 4+ and their variants.

  • This is a pre-configured template image for your PHP Application, and you shall extend and edit it according to your app requirements. (instructions below)
  • The Image utilizes multistage builds to create multiple targets optimized for production and development usecases.
  • Image designed to be run in Kubernetes.
  • Supports PHP applications that uses a single-entrypoint framework in public/index.php, such as Laravel, Symfony, and all their variants.

Features 📜

  • Designed to run in orchestrated environments like Kubernetes.
  • Uses Alpine based images and multistage builds for minimal images. (~130 MB)
  • Multi-Container setup with Nginx & PHP-FPM communicating via TCP.
  • Productions Image that are immutable and fully contained.
  • Runs as non-root in both application containers.
  • Configured for graceful shutdowns/restarts, zero downtime deployments, auto-healing, and auto-scaling.
  • Easily extend the image with extra configuration, and scripts; such as post-build & pre-run scripts.
  • Minimal startup time, container almost start serving requests almost instantly.
  • Image tries to fail at build time as much as possible by running all sort of checks.
  • Ability to run Commands, Consumers and Crons using same image. (No supervisor or crontab)
  • Development Image supports mounting code and hot-reloading and XDebug.

How to use with my project ?

  • Copy this repository Dockerfile, docker Directory, Makefile, docker-compose.yml, docker-compose.prod.yml and .dockerignore to your application root directory and configure it to your needs.

How to configure image to run my project ?

You'll need to iterate over your application's dependency system packages, and required PHP Extensions; and add them to their respective locations in the image.

  1. Add System Dependencies and PHP Extensions your application depends on to the Image.
  2. Port in any configuration changes you made for PHP.ini to the image, otherwise use the sane defaults.
  3. make build && make up for development setup, make deploy to run the production variant.

These steps explained in details below.

How is it deployed ?

Your application will be split into two components.

  1. The Webserver -> Server Static Content and proxy dynamic requests to PHP-FPM over TCP, webserver also applies rate limiting, security headers... and whatever it is configured for.
  2. The PHP Process -> PHP FPM process that will run you PHP Code.

Other type of deployments such as a cron-job, or a supervised consumer can be achieved by overriding the default image CMD.



1. Add Template to your repo.

  1. Download This Repository
  2. Copy Dockerfile, docker Directory, Makefile, docker-compose.yml, docker-compose.prod.yml and .dockerignore Into your Application Repository.


create repository from template

2. Start

  1. Modify Dockerfile to your app needs, and add your app needed OS Packages, and PHP Extensions.
    1. Dockerfile Header has Build Time Arguments, customize it, most notably the RUNTIME_DEPS argument.
    2. Below in the base image, add the PHP Extensions your application depends on.
  2. Run make up for development or make deploy for production.
    1. For Dev: make up is just an alias for docker-compose up -d
    2. For Dev: Make sure to delete previous vendor directory if you had it before.
    3. Docker-Compose will start App container first, and only start Web server when it's ready, on initial install, it might take some time.
  3. Go to http://localhost

Makefile is just a wrapper over docker-compose commands.

Building, Configuring and Extending Image

Image Targets and Build Arguments

  • The image comes with a handy Makefile to build the image using Docker-Compose files, it's handy when manually building the image for development or in a not-orchestrated docker host. However, in an environment where CI/CD pipelines will build the image, they will need to supply some build-time arguments for the image. (tho defaults exist.)

    Build Time Arguments

    ARG Description Default
    PHP_VERSION PHP Version used in the Image 7.4
    PHP_ALPINE_VERSION Alpine Version for the PHP Image 3.15
    NGINX_VERSION Nginx Version 1.21
    COMPOSER_VERSION Composer Version used in Image 2.0
    COMPOSER_AUTH A Json Object with Bitbucket or Github token to clone private Repos with composer.
    XDEBUG_VERSION Xdebug Version to use in Development Image 3.1.3

    Image Targets

    Target Env Desc Size Based On
    app Production The PHP Application with immutable code/dependencies. By default starts PHP-FPM process listening on 9000. Command can be extended to run any PHP Consumer/Job, entrypoint will still start the pre-run setup and then run the supplied command. ~135mb PHP Official Image (Alpine)
    web Production The webserver, an Nginx container that is configured to server static content and forward dynamic requests to the PHP-FPM container running in the app image variant ~21mb Nginx Official Image (Alpine)
    app-dev Development Development PHP Application variant with dependencies inside. Image expects the code to be mounted on /app to support hot-reloading. You need to mount dummy /app/vendor volume too to avoid code volume to overwrite dependencies already inside the image. ~150mb PHP Official Image (Alpine)
    web-dev Development Development Webserver with the exact configuration as the production configuration. Expects public directory to be mounted at /app/public ~21mb Nginx Official Image (Alpine)

Install System Dependencies and PHP Extensions

  • The image is to be used as a base for your PHP application image, you should modify its Dockerfile to your needs.

    1. Install System Packages in the following section in the Dockerfile.
      • Add OS Packages needed in RUNTIME_DEPS in Dockerfile.
    2. Install PHP Extensions In the following section in the Dockerfile.
    # ---------------------------------------- Install / Enable PHP Extensions ---------------------------------------------
    RUN docker-php-ext-install \
    opcache     \
    intl        \
    pdo_mysql   \
    # Pecl Extentions
    RUN pecl install apcu-5.1.20 && docker-php-ext-enable apcu
    #   EX: RUN pecl install memcached && docker-php-ext-enable memcached

At build time, Image will run composer check-platform-reqs to check that PHP and extensions versions match the platform requirements of the installed packages.

PHP Configuration

  1. PHP base Configuration that are common in all environments in docker/php/base-php.ini🔗
  2. PHP prod Only Configuration docker/php/php-prod.ini🔗
  3. PHP dev Only Configuration docker/php/php-dev.ini🔗

PHP FPM Configuration

  1. PHP FPM Configuration docker/fpm/*.conf 🔗

Nginx Configuration

  1. Nginx Configuration docker/nginx/*.conf && docker/nginx/conf.d/* 🔗

Post Build and Pre Run optional scripts.

In docker/ directory there is post-build-* and pre-run-* scripts that are used to extend the image and add extra behavior.

  1. post-build command runs at the end of Image build.

    Run as the last step during the image build. Are Often framework specific commands that generate optimized builds, generate assets, etc.

  2. pre-run command runs in runtime before running the container main command

    Runs before the container's CMD, but after the composer's post-install and post-autload-dump. Used for commands that needs to run at runtime before the application is started. Often are scripts that depends on other services or runtime parameters.

  3. *-base scripts run on both production and development images.

Misc Notes

  • Your application should log app logs to stdout.. Read about 12factor/logs
  • By default, php-fpm access logs are disabled as they're mirrored on nginx, this is so that php-fpm image will contain only application logs written by PHP.
  • In production, Image contains source-code, however, you must sync both php-fpm and nginx images so that they contain the same build.


  1. Why two containers instead of one ?

    • In containerized environment, you need to only run one process inside the container. This allows us to better instrument our application for many reasons like separation of health status, metrics, logs, etc.
  2. Image Build Fails as it try to connect to DB.


MIT License Copyright (c) 2022 Sherif Abdel-Naby


PR(s) are Open and welcomed.